Human interactions with wildlife are a defining experience of human existence. These interactions can be positive or negative. People compete with wildlife for food and resources, and have eradicated dangerous species; co-opted and domesticated valuable Read More. Figure 1: Growth in scientific papers referencing human—wildlife conflict between and as measured by red citations that use the exact words human—wildlife conflict or human wildlife confli Figure 2: A model for conceptualizing different types of human—wildlife conflict.
The x-axis represents a range of interactions or outcomes from negative e. Figure 3: Summary of selected common approaches used to mitigate human—wildlife conflict and promote human—wildlife coexistence organized by broad categories of intervention 8, 24, 26, , Agricultural production, including indirect emissions associated with land-cover Figure 1: Partitioning of production-based food chain greenhouse gas emissions, excluding land-use change, for China and United Kingdom. The estimated megatonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent for Figure 2: Regional differences in the composition of emissions from direct and indirect emissions from agricultural production for the year in megatonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent.
No indirect Figure 3: Regional differences in estimated direct greenhouse gas GHG emissions from agricultural production black and indirect GHG emissions from agriculture-driven land-use change gray for the Figure 4: Examples of actions in food systems that achieve different synergies and trade-offs for adaptation, mitigation, and food security near-term food availability.
Actions must be situated in b This review examines the relationships between politics, sustainability, and development. Following an overview of sustainability thinking across different traditions, the politics of resources and the influence of scarcity narratives on research, policy Figure 1: Transformations and politics for sustainability and development drawing from References 92 and As the world's economies become more integrated and the global economy subsequently grows, there is increasing concern regarding how such trends will affect the environment. In fact, the relationship between globalization and the environment has become Figure 2: Economics of investment and pollution intensity.
BOX 1: U. The objectives include promoting sustainable access to drinking water and sanitation services, encouraging the adoption of key hygiene behaviors, propagating sound management of freshwater resources, reducing conflicts over shared waters, and strengthening water sector governance, financing, and institutions.
The law built off the success of the Senator Paul Simon Water for the Poor Act of , which had required the secretary of state, in consultation with the USAID administrator, to submit a report every year from to updating Congress on the progress made toward tackling water and sanitation issues.
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The UN General Assembly and the Human Rights Council first recognized the human right to access safe drinking water as part of binding international law in In , Catarina de Albuquerque, UN special rapporteur at the time, said that water can have a price as long as people are not excluded and encouraged the private sector to have a role. Traditional WASH financing comes from a number of sources, including tariffs and fees paid by the WASH users, domestic tax revenues passed from the central or local governments to the WASH sector, and grants from international donors, charitable foundations, and non- governmental organizations interested in supporting the sector.
A report by the WHO found that the benefit-cost ratio was 5. Traditional methods of development finance will not be enough to achieve universal access to water and sanitation systems. Development finance institutions DFIs can incentivize local private capital through financial institutions and spur domestic and international private companies to invest in water and sanitation systems by reducing the financial risk involved with investments.
These transactions are typically tied to technical support and a bilateral assistance project to ensure bankable investments are developed and the guarantee is utilized. In order to provide these guarantees, OPIC must identify a financial institution with interest and liquidity, after which OPIC backs up the investment. By desalinating seawater, the plant is able to provide cleaner and more sanitary water for residents around Accra.
There is also significant demand for loans and financing toward small-scale household solutions to water and sanitation issues, such as water filtration systems.
One of the leaders in providing these microfinance solutions is Water. WaterEquity was launched in by Water. Hilton, the Skoll Foundation, and Niagara Bottling. The United States remains a global leader on water and sanitation issues. This does not mean that it is exempt from the challenges of supplying clean drinking water, as seen through the water crisis in Flint, Michigan. Petersburg, Florida is another city where rain and flooding has overwhelmed stormwater systems, forcing the city to pump partially treated sewage into Tampa Bay, Boca Ciega Bay, and the Clam Bayou Nature Preserve.
Increased flooding, growing urban populations, and saltwater intrusion along coastal towns will only exacerbate the challenges to providing sustainable WASH systems in cities. Driven by climate change and unpredictable weather, water and sanitation challenges are becoming more and more difficult to address, and the United States must remain committed to strengthening WASH systems at home and abroad.
If the United States limits its engagement to just domestic efforts, WASH systems in cities around the world will deteriorate beyond repair and contribute to increased global instability. Through the Water for the World Act, the United States has demonstrated its commitment to supporting clean water and sanitation services abroad. Increasing access to capital for WASH programs in developing countries saves lives, helps strengthen the resilience of cities, and reduces dependency on donor agencies.
Reducing fragility in developing countries also supports U. Mobilize private capital to support increased water and sanitation in cities. This is more sustainable for practical reasons, as it engages local institutions, and also for financial reasons, as local currency debt is better matched to the revenues of the service providers and does not carry foreign exchange risk. There may be an opportunity to engage further with local pension funds looking for low-risk, long-term investments.
When OPIC transforms into the new DFC, it should use the new investment tools at its disposal to support urban water infrastructure projects. As the DFC has a mandate to deliver results in the least-developed countries, partnering with bilateral and multilateral DFIs can help alleviate risks and costs. Increasing access to capital for people in low- and middle- income countries will allow households the ability to purchase their first toilets and tap water systems.
Microfinancing is another way to expand the amount of private capital available for households to get the loans they desperately need and on favorable terms. Partnering with other DFIs through co-investments also gives a certain level of credibility to investment opportunities because investors know that the U.
Increase the efficiency and improve the performance of WASH systems. Part of bridging the finance gap should also be to increase the efficiency and performance of existing water and sanitation systems. Building new infrastructure is needed in many instances, but many of the problems that utility providers face are related to management and governance. Service providers struggle with collection or lose money due to non-revenue water from spills or leaks. Strengthening urban water systems should be a part of smart cities initiatives and leverage new technologies when appropriate.
Seeing where the leaks are on a map would go a long way to fixing them and preventing them in the future. Technology should be used to map complex underground piped networks and monitor collection points.
However, without addressing the governance and enabling environment challenges, no amount of new technologies will be able fix all the problems that systems face. A good example of technology that support water systems is mWater, a free data management platform used by over 40, people in countries to map and monitor water and sanitation sites, conduct surveys, and collaborate with local governments. In many countries, consumers pay too little for water services. Revenue from water charges does not even cover operation and maintenance of water utilities, let alone re investment for the infrastructure.
Water and wastewater tariffs determine the level of revenues that service providers receive from users in centralised or semi-centralised systems for the appropriate treatment, purification and distribution of freshwater, and the subsequent collection, treatment and discharge of wastewater. Here, we will introduce water pricing as an important economic instrument for improving water use efficiency, enhancing social equity and securing financial sustainability of water utilities and operators. A water tariff is the price assigned to water supplied by a public utility generally for both freshwater supply and wastewater treatment.
The term is also often applied to wastewater tariffs. Water and wastewater tariffs determine the conditions of service and the monthly bills for water users in various categories and classes. Tariffs are often set by a regulatory agency for the appropriate catchment, purification and distribution of freshwater, and the subsequent collection, treatment and discharge of wastewater. Wastewater tariffs can be a fixed percentage of water tariffs, or can be set separately.
Water charges often contain some elements to address poverty. Often, consumers pay too little for the water and sanitation services they get. People are not aware of the real costs of providing water and sanitation services because these have been historically heavily subsidised from governments. This is because water is a social good and it was considered a cheap and abundant resource. However, with population growth and much larger communities requiring access to water services, the availability of freshwater is decreasing dramatically in many regions of the world.
Water tariffs are economic instruments that help tackling both challenges of providing water and sanitation services to all citizens at an affordable price and the conservation of water resources.
Proper water tariffs provide incentives to improve sustainable water and sanitation services and to use water resources more efficiently:. Adequate water tariffs allow cost recovery, which is very important to assure well functioning water and sanitation systems. In essence, low levels of cost recovery from users and other sources, lead to insufficient income for the effective and efficient operation and management of the service. This implies a poor ability to invest in the sector, whether through human investment or capital investment.
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Water and wastewater tariffs need to be set, and from time to time, revisited and adapted. The process is often complex and can involve some or all the stakeholders mentioned below. Outside consulting firms, lending institutions and political leaders may be involved as well. The tariff may be determined by a formula embodied in national legislation e. Ukraine , which may also be administered and regulated by a national regulatory body e.
At the national level, the following entities usually have a say in defining the environment in which water and sanitation management take place:. Water and wastewater tariffs are usually designed as a single part tariff or as a combination of two tariff structures. Charges can be set depending or not from the volume of water consumed. In the first case water metering is needed. A briefly overview of water and wastewater tariffs generally adopted by water utilities is given below:.
Water tariffs are applicable at different levels: they can be set either at the service provider level or by national or local governments. Policy makers need to decide which objectives have the highest priority, and where possible, use a range of instruments.
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This paper provides an excellent overview on financing and cost recovery for the water supply and sanitation services sector in rural and low-income urban areas of developing countries. The document contains also case studies and mini reviews of best publications on financing and cost recovery. This paper aims to present a basic conceptual framework for understanding the main practical issues and challenges relating to tariffs and subsidies in the water sector in developing countries.
The paper introduces the basic economic notions relevant to the water sector; presents an analytical framework for assessing the need for and evaluating subsidies; and discusses the recent evidence on the features and performance of water tariffs and subsidies in various regions, with a special focus on Africa.