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To aid the readability of a spreadsheet, cell formatting may be conditionally applied to data; for example, a negative number may be displayed in red. A cell's formatting does not typically affect its content and depending on how cells are referenced or copied to other worksheets or applications, the formatting may not be carried with the content. In most implementations, a cell, or group of cells in a column or row, can be "named" enabling the user to refer to those cells by a name rather than by a grid reference.
Names must be unique within the spreadsheet, but when using multiple sheets in a spreadsheet file, an identically named cell range on each sheet can be used if it is distinguished by adding the sheet name. One reason for this usage is for creating or running macros that repeat a command across many sheets. Another reason is that formulas with named variables are readily checked against the algebra they are intended to implement they resemble Fortran expressions.
Use of named variables and named functions also makes the spreadsheet structure more transparent. In place of a named cell, an alternative approach is to use a cell or grid reference.
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Most cell references indicate another cell in the same spreadsheet, but a cell reference can also refer to a cell in a different sheet within the same spreadsheet, or depending on the implementation to a cell in another spreadsheet entirely, or to a value from a remote application. A typical cell reference in "A1" style consists of one or two case-insensitive letters to identify the column if there are up to columns: A—Z and AA—IV followed by a row number e.
The alternative "R1C1" reference style consists of the letter R, the row number, the letter C, and the column number; relative row or column numbers are indicated by enclosing the number in square brackets. Most current spreadsheets use the A1 style, some providing the R1C1 style as a compatibility option. When the computer calculates a formula in one cell to update the displayed value of that cell, cell reference s in that cell, naming some other cell s , cause the computer to fetch the value of the named cell s. Some spreadsheet implementations in Excel allow a cell references to another spreadsheet not the current open and active file on the same computer or a local network.
It may also refer to a cell in another open and active spreadsheet on the same computer or network that is defined as shareable. These references contain the complete filename, such as:. In a spreadsheet, references to cells automatically update when new rows or columns are inserted or deleted.
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Care must be taken, however, when adding a row immediately before a set of column totals to ensure that the totals reflect the additional rows values—which they often do not. A circular reference occurs when the formula in one cell refers—directly, or indirectly through a chain of cell references—to another cell that refers back to the first cell. Many common errors cause circular references.
However, some valid techniques use circular references. These techniques, after many spreadsheet recalculations, usually converge on the correct values for those cells. Likewise, instead of using a named range of cells, a range reference can be used.
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Reference to a range of cells is typically of the form A1:A6 , which specifies all the cells in the range A1 through to A6. In the earliest spreadsheets, cells were a simple two-dimensional grid. Over time, the model has expanded to include a third dimension, and in some cases a series of named grids, called sheets.
The most advanced examples allow inversion and rotation operations which can slice and project the data set in various ways. A formula identifies the calculation needed to place the result in the cell it is contained within. A cell containing a formula therefore has two display components; the formula itself and the resulting value.
The formula is normally only shown when the cell is selected by "clicking" the mouse over a particular cell; otherwise it contains the result of the calculation. When a cell contains a formula, it often contains references to other cells.
Such a cell reference is a type of variable. Its value is the value of the referenced cell or some derivation of it. If that cell in turn references other cells, the value depends on the values of those. References can be relative e. The available options for valid formulas depends on the particular spreadsheet implementation but, in general, most arithmetic operations and quite complex nested conditional operations can be performed by most of today's commercial spreadsheets.
Modern implementations also offer functions to access custom-build functions, remote data, and applications. A formula may contain a condition or nested conditions —with or without an actual calculation—and is sometimes used purely to identify and highlight errors. In the example below, it is assumed the sum of a column of percentages A1 through A6 is tested for validity and an explicit message put into the adjacent right-hand cell. The best way to build up conditional statements is step by step composing followed by trial and error testing and refining code.
A spreadsheet does not, in fact, have to contain any formulas at all, in which case it could be considered merely a collection of data arranged in rows and columns a database like a calendar, timetable or simple list. Because of its ease of use, formatting and hyperlinking capabilities, many spreadsheets are used solely for this purpose. Spreadsheets usually contain a number of supplied functions , such as arithmetic operations for example, summations, averages and so forth , trigonometric functions, statistical functions, and so forth.
In addition there is often a provision for user-defined functions. In Microsoft Excel these functions are defined using Visual Basic for Applications in the supplied Visual Basic editor, and such functions are automatically accessible on the worksheet. In addition, programs can be written that pull information from the worksheet, perform some calculations, and report the results back to the worksheet. In the figure, the name sq is user-assigned, and function sq is introduced using the Visual Basic editor supplied with Excel.
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Functions themselves cannot write into the worksheet, but simply return their evaluation. However, in Microsoft Excel, subroutines can write values or text found within the subroutine directly to the spreadsheet. The figure shows the Visual Basic code for a subroutine that reads each member of the named column variable x , calculates its square, and writes this value into the corresponding element of named column variable y.
The y column contains no formula because its values are calculated in the subroutine, not on the spreadsheet, and simply are written in. Whenever a reference is made to a cell or group of cells that are not located within the current physical spreadsheet file, it is considered as accessing a "remote" spreadsheet. The contents of the referenced cell may be accessed either on first reference with a manual update or more recently in the case of web based spreadsheets, as a near real time value with a specified automatic refresh interval.
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Many spreadsheet applications permit charts , graphs or histograms to be generated from specified groups of cells that are dynamically re-built as cell contents change. The generated graphic component can either be embedded within the current sheet or added as a separate object. In the late s and early s, first Javelin Software and Lotus Improv appeared. Unlike models in a conventional spreadsheet, they utilized models built on objects called variables, not on data in cells of a report. These multi-dimensional spreadsheets enabled viewing data and algorithms in various self-documenting ways, including simultaneous multiple synchronized views.
For example, users of Javelin could move through the connections between variables on a diagram while seeing the logical roots and branches of each variable. This is an example of what is perhaps its primary contribution of the earlier Javelin—the concept of traceability of a user's logic or model structure through its twelve views. A complex model can be dissected and understood by others who had no role in its creation.
In these programs, a time series , or any variable, was an object in itself, not a collection of cells that happen to appear in a row or column. Variables could have many attributes, including complete awareness of their connections to all other variables, data references, and text and image notes.
Calculations were performed on these objects, as opposed to a range of cells, so adding two time series automatically aligns them in calendar time, or in a user-defined time frame. Data were independent of worksheets—variables, and therefore data, could not be destroyed by deleting a row, column or entire worksheet.
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For instance, January's costs are subtracted from January's revenues, regardless of where or whether either appears in a worksheet. This permits actions later used in pivot tables , except that flexible manipulation of report tables was but one of many capabilities supported by variables.